singapore land reclamation history

January 7, 2021

SINGAPORE: Experts on Monday (Aug 19) welcomed the possibility of implementing engineering solutions such as land reclamation to tackle rising sea … Countries around the South China Sea also have a long history of sea reclamation. [13], In 2007, Indonesia enacted a ban against exporting sand specifically to Singapore. The land reclamation strategy could be considered a success, by the state’s definition, for what it was intended to do. Land reclamation which increased Singapore's land area by 17% has buried much of Singapore's coasts. By 2008, Singapore was one of the top three oil trading and refining hubs globally. [15], The Singaporean government refuses to disclose where the sand it receives is imported from. [17] Yet the Singapore government has been increasingly open to public feedback regarding increased sustainability in future land projects.[23]. In 1997, Malaysia announced a ban on the export of sand,[13] yet Malaysian media continue to report rampant smuggling of sand into Singapore, leading then former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad to protest that these corrupt sand miners were "digging Malaysia and giving her to other people". [13] In fact, Singapore has used so much sand that it has run out of its own, and imports sand from surrounding areas in order to meet its land reclamation needs. Thus land reclamation has been an important project since we became an independent nation. [5], The early phases of land reclamation began not long after Sir Stamford Raffles arrived in what would become modern Singapore in 1819. Situated at the northeastern coast of the mainland, the first reclamation project on the islands was carried out in the 1980s. The best practices which Singapore adopts, enables it to embark to some quite massive land reclamation projects, in Pulau Tekong and in Tuas, without causing significant impacts on the marine environment, for example,, pollution. My father’s ship used to ride at anchor in the harbour and to get on shore we had to hail a passing sampan who would take you to Collyer Quay. Land reclamation is most simply done by adding material such as rocks, soil and cement to an area of water, alternatively submerged wetlands. Learn more about Singapore in … This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Land reclamation usually known as reclamation and also known as land fill not to be confused with a landfill is the process of creating new land from oceans riverbeds or lake beds. [5] Though industries around the world depend on sand, the United Nations Environment Programme found Singapore to be the largest importer of sand worldwide in 2014. Construction of reservoirs by damming rivers and draining wetlands have also badly affected the habitats near river mouths and on … History of Land Reclamation in Singapore. Het land beslaat een groep van in totaal 63 eilanden die van Indonesië wordt gescheiden door de Straat van Singapore en van Maleisië door de Straat van Johore. Due to a global shortage and restricted supply of the required type of sand (river and beach sand, not desert sand), Singapore has switched to polders for reclamation since the mid 2010s — a method commonly used in the Netherlands, in which an area is surrounded by a dyke and pumped dry to reclaim the land. [19] By 2002, that number had dropped to 54 km2 (21 sq mi). Raffles had come to the area with the goal of developing a British port to rival that of the Dutch, and though contemporary Singapore was the ideal location for a harbor, it was at the time only a small fishing village. [3] Such development was interrupted by World War II, when the Japanese occupied Singapore and directed focus away from an improved Singapore and towards an extended Japanese culture. The government also laid out an extensive land reclamation project in several parts of Singapore, estimated to end in 2030 and provide more residential, industrial and military spaces for future use. Whereas a certified copy of the Request was sent the same day by the Registrar of the Tribunal to the Minister for Law and Foreign Affairs of Singapore, and also in care of the Ambassador of Singapore to Germany on that same day; 4. Prior to 1960, Singapore had 581.5 km2 of its productive land (library.thinkquest.org). [5], More recently, Singapore has issued its own complaints against Malaysia regarding the latter's two land reclamation projects in the Straits of Johore. [3], During the 1960s, Singapore was home to fewer than two million people; that number had more than doubled by 2008, to almost four and a half million people. [3] Post-war industrialization and land reclamation transformed Singapore's weak economy. However, land reclamation has sparked much controversy over its environmental and ethical implications. The total land area of Singapore at that time was 581.5 km 2 and it has increased to 633 km 2 in the 1990s, which is an increase of about 9% in total land area. [17] Prior to the land reclamation of the last several decades, Singapore's coral reefs covered an estimated 100 km2 (39 sq mi). Here you will find a compilation of historical narratives, archival documents, maps, photographs, and annotated bibliographies regarding a number of important Asian cities. [9] At that time, the south bank was largely uninhabited swamp, covered in mangrove trees and sprinkled with creeks. Proposed reclamation (in yellow) will bury Pasir Ris shores, Pulau Sekudu and Chek Jawa as well as a large amount of shore at Changi Beach. Land is Singapore’s most cherished resource and its dearest ambition. The East Coast reclamation project aimed to reclaim land from Bedok to Tanjong Rhu in its first two phases. Reclamation of land by irrigation was extensively developed by the Soviet Union.By the late 1950s the Soviets reported a total of about 27 million acres (11 million hectares) under irrigation, about one-half of this being in the Central Asian republics. As of 2021, at about 730 km2 (280 sq mi), the entire country of Singapore is about four times the size of Washington D.C.. As such, the Singaporean government has used land reclamation to supplement the country's commercial, residential, industrial, and governmental properties (military and official buildings). The first reclamations can be traced back to the early Western Han Dynasty (206 BC – 9 AD), when beaches were turned into fields for salt production. Given the shallow depth of the waters surrounding much of Singapore, sand has generally been seen as the best option for this process. Progress on the project came to a halt after Singapore protested its construction in 2014, but the Malaysian government reportedly approved a scaled-down version of the project in January 2015. The former has been the most common method with sand the predominant material used. Welcome to this urban research blog led by students from the Department of Architecture, University of Hong Kong. [17] When Stamford Raffles arrived in Singapore in 1819, the land was largely mangrove swamp; today, mangrove cover accounts for less than 0.5% of Singapore's total land area. Originally consisting of swamps and jungle vegetation, Singapore’s terrain is largely flat and low-lying with numerous undulating hills. Though correct in reference to the creation of land from where there was once ocean, reclamation is an odd word: it appears to imply that Singapore is retrieving something from the sea, re-claiming what was already its own, when it has in fact been building land where land had never existed before. [14], In 2003, Singapore received backlash from Malaysia over land reclamation projects at either end of the Straits of Johore, which separate the two countries. As early as 1822, Raffles assessed that the new port should be located at the south bank of the Singapore River (known today as Boat Quay), near the river’s mouth. [9] The project began in the second half of 1822, and was completed in three to four months (largely by Chinese, Malay, and Indian laborers). Thanks to land reclamation the tiny red dot has broadened its shores substantially. [20], Singapore has also suffered an enormous loss in coral reefs as the result of extensive land and coastal development. In Singapore the former has been the most common method, with … Land reclamation which increased Singapore's land area by 17% has buried much of Singapore's coasts. Singapore will reclaim land through the development of a polder at the north-western tip of Pulau Tekong, an island north-east of mainland Singapore. The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill. Land reclamation defines Singapore from its very beginnings. De Straat van Singapore is een deelzee van de Straat Karimata en daarmee weer van de Zuid-Chinese Zee. After s… Today, Singapore is 224.5 mi² (581.5 km²). The land reclaimed is known as reclamation ground or land fill.. And, by 2030, Singapore plans to grow some more to become an even 300 mi² (766 km²) in size. [9] The southwest bank of the river was found to be prone to flooding, so Raffles decided to dismantle a small hill (located in today's Raffles Place) and use the soil to raise and fill in the low-lying areas that would otherwise be affected by flooding. Most of our natural sandy shores have been lost to reclamation. [3] Rapidly increasing demand for industrial, infrastructural, commercial, and residential land resulted in projects that reclaimed hundreds of hectares (acres) at a time. 6. Fast forward 146 years, after Singapore declared independence from Malaysia, Singapore began the first reclamation project. [12] Raffles used soil from a razed hill to raise the southwest bank of the Singapore River, but sand is the predominant choice. After the turn of the century (particularly from 1919 to 1923), Singaporean land reclamation was primarily the result of a need for increased public utilities (such as roads and railways) and military coastal protection. Small coastal territories like Singapore, and Hong Kong, use land reclamation strategies to increase their usable land area. There was thus a lull in industrialization in Singapore during this period, which continued throughout the 1950s and early 1960s (during which time Singapore experienced extensive political change) until the city-state's participation in the founding of Malaysia in 1963. Land reclamation history of northern Hong Kong island, the Kowloon peninsula and the southern New Territories up to 1990 centres, if one bases the calculation on the number of multinational concerns, the banking importance and the number of international organizations (Helle 1989, p. 165). Swampland was reclaimed using earth obtained from the levelling of hills in the area. By 1991, 10% of the Singapore … History of singapores land reclamation the first land reclamation works began in 1819 when sir stamford raffles cleared mangrove swamps and fishing villages in order to build trading centres. In 2002, Malaysia began to voice its displeasure at Singapore’s land reclamation works in Tuas and Pulau Tekong. In some jurisdictions, including parts of the United States, the term "reclamation" can refer to returning disturbed lands … A HISTORY OF RECLAMATION IN MUMBAI. [17] In the development of the Semakau Landfill, for example, an extensive EIA was carried out after the project's commission in 1999. Early land reclamations in Singapore date back to the 19th century and large scale land reclamation … Hence, the story of land reclamation in Singapore is a rich topic that has yet to receive significant attention from historians.5 The history of land construction in Singapore offers a number of important insights, which form the central theses of this paper. Land reclamation, the process of improving lands to make them suitable for a more intensive use. Land reclamation isn’t a recent phenomenon in Singapore; this practice actually began as early as 1822, four years after the British claimed Singapore as a colony. Please use the menu on the top to explore the cities that our students are researching, or the links below to explore the range of narratives or documents that are available in this blog. The state government is waiting for the MoEF to give an in-principal approval so that it can go ahead with the planning. Map created by reddit user theman77777 the map comparison above shows what the land area of what makes up the netherlands today looked like in 1300 compared to what it … Learn how your comment data is processed. Tan et al. 4 Subsequently, land … [1] In Sir Stamford Raffles’s original layout of Singapore town, he had reserved the north bank of the Singapore River for government use, and the beach front that stretched from the Esplanade to Rochor River for the European merchants. [15], Starting in November 2016, Singapore has started to use a different land reclamation method, the polder development method, which should lessen its reliance on sand for land reclamation. This cost-saving method, to be used for the first time in Singapore, will be adopted by the Housing & Development Board (HDB) for the upcoming land reclamation project. [2] [3] [4] In the reclamation process, Telok Ayer Basin and Inner Roads was removed from the map by reclaiming land, while the Singapore River's mouth now flows into the bay instead of directly into the sea. For starters, this history reveals Reclamation has historically been an effective way of providing land for development. Timah Hill, the highest point, is only 531 feet (162 meters) above sea level. Land reclamation is most simply done by adding material such as rocks, soil and cement to an area of water; alternatively submerged wetlands or similar biomes can be drained. The reclamation of land from surrounding waters is used in Singapore to expand the city-state's limited area of usable, natural land. [21] Coral reefs are valued for their work towards carbon sequestration and shore protection (particularly in the dispersal of wave energy), as well as for their contributions to fisheries production, ecotourism, and scientific research. Marina Bay, Sentosa) as well as industrial spaces (e.g. As Changi Airport maintains a policy of continual development in preparation for the future, a third airport terminal was planned from the beginning, and was opened on January 1, 2007. East Coast Reclamation Scheme, reclaiming 19 ha of land at 14 km East Coast road, started the history of intensive efforts to overcome land shortage. Often, these cities attain extreme conditions of density, informality, hybrid identities, and infrastructure building when the trajectories of their regional histories combined unexpectedly with a post-colonial complex in the 20th century. History In 1969, land reclamation work began to convert what was sea-water into 360-hectares of prime waterfront site. With this theme in mind, National Gallery Singapore has commissioned artist Charles Lim Yi Yong to transform its Ng Teng Fong Roof Garden into a social space that facilitates deeper understanding of the complexity and intricacies of the reclamation landscape. (2007) reported that most of the natural sandy shores have been lost to reclamation (Tan et al., 2007). One project would involve the creation and linkage of four islands within the strait, creating a new metropolis called Forest City,[5] which Malaysia plans to advertise as a garden oasis, with buildings covered by greenery and an impressive expanse of public transport. Singapore is the largest port in Southeast Asia and one of the busiest in the world. 2 There were also fish and prawn ponds. This is an on-going and collective effort in recognizing that there are highly specific discourses that make up the historical and theoretical basis of Asian urbanism. Through continuing land reclamation efforts, the size of Singapore has grown from 226 square miles (586 square kilometers) in 1965. Land is Singapore’s most cherished resource and its dearest ambition. This is Boat Quay from the mid t… [13] After the dredging of Cambodia's Tatai River (exempt from the ban) began in 2010, locals saw an estimated 85% reduction in the catch of fish, crab, and lobsters; tourist numbers have similarly decreased as construction and noise have surged. 3 Reclamation work began in the 1960s. Land reclamation is most simply done by adding material such as rocks, soil and cement to an area of water; alternatively submerged wetlands or similar biomes can be drained. Each of these are restrained by its geographical boundaries, and thus traditionally limited by the ocean's reach. [16] Many offshore islands have been changed, often through the filling of waters between small islands in order to create cohesive landmasses. [10] The necessary facilities for such an involvement in the oil industry require a very large amount of space, and today, Singapore's facilities are housed almost entirely on Jurong Island and the Jurong Industrial Estates.[10]. Lindsay Murdoch, "Sand wars: Singapore's growth comes at the environmental expense of its neighbors", http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/history/events/feddcf2a-2074-4ae6-b272-dc0db80e2146 “Singapore’s First Land Reclamation Project Begins", British Military Administration (1945–1946), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Land_reclamation_in_Singapore&oldid=999270530, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 09:38. Prior to 1960, Singapore had 581.5 km2 of its productive land (library.thinkquest.org). In the past, most of Singapore's sand imports … The first time Singapore started to reclaim land was in the 1960s. The reclaimed land forms what is today the Marina Centre and Marina South areas, and the reclamation work was completed in 1992. Jurong Island). The current island of Pulau Tekong was originally composed of two distinct islands, Pulau Tekong Besar – the biggest natural offshore island in Singapore and commonly referred to as just Pulau Tekong – and the much smaller Pulau Tekong Kecil. Land reclamation works involving the use of over 52,000,000 m 3 (68,000,000 cu yd) of landfill and seafill began in Changi in June 1975, even as the airport at Paya Lebar was still in the midst of expansion works. At that time, however, the south bank was a swampy ground covered in mangrove trees. Land reclamation has always been part of Singapore’s history in order to construct new space for a growing population. Singapore's Historic Waterfront. With an existing land area of only 581.5km2, it is not enough to keep up with the rapid urbanization of the country in order to meet the demands of the growing population and the booming business enterprises. [3] The Jurong Industrial Estate began development in the early 1960s to meet industrial land needs, and by 1968 already housed 153 factories, with another 46 under construction. Most of our natural sandy shores have been lost to reclamation. Singapore’s first industrial estate is located in Jurong. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p25Itx7959Q, Map of Singapore showing original land, reclaimed land, and future land reclamation plans: http://mr-architecture.com/mapping-singapore/, Seoul / Cheonggyecheon: Building up an eco-friendly urban center, Phnom Penh (2001-2015) / Getting Even More Populous. ... "The Master Plan is the statutory land use plan which guides Singapore's development in the medium term over the next 10 to 15 years. 3 Reclamation work began in the 1960s. [9], After this first land reclamation project, there were no significant alterations to Singapore's geography until 1849, which brought the building of port facilities that became increasingly important after the establishment of the British Straits Settlements in 1826 and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, both of which allowed for improved connections between the city-state and Europe.[3]. [11], Reclamation of submerged land requires a substance to fill in the reclaimed area. [17], Though much harm has been done to Singapore's aquatic ecosystems as the result of land reclamation projects and expansive industrialization, there has been more of an effort in recent years to accommodate and restore damaged environments. East Coast Reclamation Scheme, reclaiming 19 ha of land at 14 km East Coast road, started the history of intensive efforts to overcome land shortage. All playfields under SLA will be reopened from 19 June 2020, following the Multi-Ministry Taskforce’s announcement that Singapore will move into Phase Two of its reopening on 19 June 2020. read more [13] Large-scale damage has been seen throughout Koh Kong Province as a result of this dredging. [19] Since coral reef monitoring was first instigated in the late 1980s, a clear overall decline in live coral cover has been noted, as has a decline in the depths at which corals thrive. How Reclaiming Land Changed Singapore’s Waterfront and the famous Collyer Quay and Finlayson Green. [14] It is to be used first on the northwestern tip of Pulau Tekong, a future military training base which will be expanded by 810 ha (2,000 acres). [1] The Land Acquisition Ordinance of 1920 was repealed by the Land Acquisition Act in 1966 so as to give the government the power of compulsory land … Singapore is using land reclamation techniques, turning the water which surrounds it into new land through various Below is a video reference showing the time lapse of Singapore land reclamation from 1984-2012 : Singapore is a fast-paced urban country with a population of 5.47 million. Since its first days as a city, Hong Kong has been shaped and reshaped by land reclamation, which has been an indispensable tool in turning 733 kilometres of craggy shoreline into a global metropolis of 7.5 million people. A nearby hillock was levelled to fill up swampy marshland at the south bank of the Singapore River to expand Singapore’s commercial district. [3] As part of Malaysia and continuing after independence in 1965, Singapore benefitted from economic development programs, which both enabled and required significant land reclamation projects. Hong Kong International Airport Master Plan 2030Land reclamation (English version) The reclamation of land from surrounding waters used in Singapore to expand the city-state's limited area of usable, natural land. ... ,South Korea (1,550 sq km),Hong Kong (86 sq km),Tokyo (249 sq km) and Singapore (135 sq km). Land Reclamation Singapore 1990s. Bitgenstein. The new integrated resorts build on the Marina Bay reclaimed land attracted more tourists to Singapore, further boosting the country’s economy. [13] People living near the river have petitioned for an end to sand mining there. The Housing Board started preparatory work on Singapore's largest reclamation project. [14] The ban resulted in an increase in construction costs in Singapore as well as the need to find new sources of sand, which has become increasingly difficult as more neighboring countries institute their own bans and regulations regarding the exportation of sand. The reclaimed land now holds Marina Centre and the Marina South Areas and allows the Singapore River to flow into the bay rather than directly into sea. For the country to meet the needs of growing populations and economic development, having more land is certainly beneficial. According to the URA website: "The Master Plan is the statutory land use plan which guides Singapore's development in the medium term over the next 10 to 15 years. In order to meet these demands, the Singapore government turned to land reclamation in order to make space for her people’s needs. [19] Estimates are that up to 60% of the habitat is no longer sustainable. [13] This ban followed tensions between Singapore and Indonesia regarding islands lying between the two countries: sand miners had reportedly all but demolished these islands. After Singapore gained independence in 1965, the government had a pressing need for an adequate supply of land to carry out its developmental projects, especially those concerning resettlement and industrialisation. [16] The majority of Singapore's southern coast has been altered through the process of land reclamation, as have large areas of the northeastern coast. However, a large-scale of coastal reclamation was initiated in the mids-1960s. [13] In spite of these restrictions, Cambodia, which provided just 25% of Singapore's sand imports in 2010, is now its primary source of sand. Singapore’s first industrial estate is located in Jurong. Raffles had come to the area with the goal of developing a British port to rival that of the Dutch, and though contemporary Singapore was the ideal location for a harbor, it was at the time only a small fishing village. This increase in land area is all thanks to land reclamation. History Of Singapore S Land Reclamation Asian Cities Research Tai-Chee Wong, Belinda Yuen, and Charles Goldblum, ed.. Goh Chok Tong, "Singapore is the Global City of Opportunity" (Keynote Address, Singapore Conference in London, March 15, 2015). [22], Singapore has also seen the negative effects of industrialization impact several other coastal and marine habitats, such as seagrass, seabed, and seashores, all of which have suffered loss or degradation similar to that of the mangroves and coral reefs. Predominant material used weer van de Straat van Singapore is een deelzee van de Straat Singapore! Timah hill, the Singaporean government refuses to disclose where the sand it receives is imported from industrialization land. Was completed in 1992 1819 when Sir Stamford Raffles cleared mangrove swamps and fishing in! Its environmental and ethical implications Stamford Rafflesarrived in what would become modern Singapore in … Housing! 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