rocky mountain arsenal history
The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is a 15,988-acre (64.70 km 2) National Wildlife Refuge located adjacent to Commerce City, Colorado, in the United States.It is approximately 8 miles (13 km) northeast of downtown Denver.The refuge is on the grounds of the former Rocky Mountain Arsenal, a United States Army chemical weapons manufacturing facility. Signs proudly proclaim the site to be the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Rabbit used to check for leaks at Sarin nerve gas production plant. In 1942, during World War II, the U.S. Army bought 17,000 acres of farmland outside of Denver to develop chemical weapons to be used as a war deterrent. Mr. Edson is now a principal at Edson Ecosystems LLC in Boulder, Colorado. The acquisition of land for the Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) (Figure 1) was initiated with the sig-ning of Memo of Approval 438 on IZ May 1942. Toxic trichothecenes, including nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, and monoace tylnivalenol (fusarenon- X) from Fusarium nivale, can be isolated from moldy grains. EPA and the State concurred with the approach. Today, it is considered a hazardous waste site according to the Colorado Department of Public and Environmental Health. Since 1985, the mission at RMA has been the remediation of the site. In April 2007 Dick's Sporting Goods Park, a soccer-specific stadium, was opened on part of the former Rocky Mountain Arsenal land that was transferred to Commerce City. It stipulates that the majority … The military reserved the right to oust these companies and restart chemical weapon production in the event of a national emergency. Explore the history of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: Arsenal history is very interesting - See 337 traveler reviews, 367 candid photos, and great deals for Commerce City, CO, at Tripadvisor. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal was a pre-War toxic waste dump and weapons storage facility. One of his book's contributions is to further tie Noborito to the Japanese Army's infamous Unit 731, which participated in biomedical research. CIA review of "Rikugun Noborito Kenkyujo no shinjitsu [The Truth About the Army Noborito Research Institute]" By Ban Shigeo. The primary contaminants include organochloride pesticides, organophosphate pesticides, carbamate insecticides, organic solvents and feedstock chemicals used as raw products or intermediates in the manufacturing process (e.g., chlorinated benzenes), heavy metals, chemical warfare material and their related breakdown products and biological warfare agent such as TX. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal was placed on the National Priorities List of Superfund sites in July 1987. Rocket fuel to support Air Force operations was also manufactured and stored at RMA. The involvement of the Wildlife Service with the Arsenal also marked its historical transformation. NPL Partial Site Deletion Area Map for Rocky Mountain Arsenal (USARMY) Internal Parcel of On-Post Operable Unit (PDF) (1 p, 313 K, About PDF) Partially deleted on July 31, 2006. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Act was passed in October 1992 and signed by then President George H. W. Bush. A lateral was built off the High Line Canal to supply water to the Arsenal. Rocky Mountain Arsenal wasn't always a wildlife sanctuary, hence the word Arsenal in the name. Copyright © 2019. Leading the design and stewardship of land and communities the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge Comprehensive Management Plan served a visionary purpose in the conversion of a 17,000-acre Superfund site into one of our nation's largest urban wildlife refuges. Jeff Edson was the Rocky Mountain Arsenal case manager for CDPHE from 1984 to 2008. I was exposed to chemical warfare (probably Agent Orange) while working for Shell chemical at Rocky Mountain Arsenal (US ARMY) in the early ’70s. It stipulates that the majority of the site will become a National Wildlife Refuge under the jurisdiction of the Fish and Wildlife Service when the environmental restoration is completed. Their off-post and on-post record decisions provided the purpose, framework, and rationale for the succeeding clean-up actions that were accomplished at the site. Fort Eustis, VA (Joint Base Langley-Eustis), Fort Lewis, WA — **Now Joint Base Lewis-McChord [JBLM], Fort Myer, VA (Joint Base Myer – Henderson Hall). On the sensitive issue of Japanese biological warfare, Ban did not shrink from including an account of his trip to Nanking in 1941 to participate in the testing of poisons on Chinese prisoners. The Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge is 15,000 acres and features three lakes that are home to over 300 species of wildlife. The site was operated by the United States Army throughout the later 20th century and was controversial among local residents until its closure in 1992. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, is located in Commerce City, Colorado. The Army discontinued use of the well in February 1966 because the fluid injection triggered a series of earthquakes in the area. The Army and the federal government are providing the rest. History . Although comprising 17,056 acres (69.02 km²) at the beginning of remediation in 1997, 5,976 acres (24.18 km²) of the RMA have been determined to meet cleanup requirements and are no longer part of the National Priorities List. Rocky Mountain Arsenal continues to leak contaminants into groundwater, Colorado health department lawsuit says Contaminants include organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and solvents Since the remediation of this military installation began, the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Shell Company, and the US Army have recycled a significant number of old materials. In 1952, the Shell Chemical Co. acquired Julius Hyman and Co. and continued producing agricultural pesticides in the Rocky Mountain Arsenal until 1982. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, south plant. Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: Rocky Mountain Arsenal - See 333 traveler reviews, 365 candid photos, and great deals for Commerce City, CO, at Tripadvisor. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), and the Federal Highway Administration, Central Federal Lands Highway Division (FHWA-CFLHD), are proposing to construct a system of trails and trailheads to improve pedestrian and bicycle access to and through the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National The Arsenal had been on stand-by status since May 1947. As production declined at war's end, a portion of the idle facilities were leased to Shell Chemical Co. for the production of agricultural chemicals. Introduction - a. There are some that only provide a tattered map and an outhouse and then there are others that are practically a natural history museum. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, south entrance. Emma Walker The refuge is home to more than 330 species of wildlife, and the nine-mile Wildlife Drive is the best way to get the lay of the land and its inhabitants. Additionally, some of this land was used for a prisoner of war camp (for German combatants) and later transferred to the city of Denver as Stapleton Airport expanded. Coordinates: 39°49′42″N 104°51′31″W / 39.828258°N 104.858740°W / 39.828258; -104.858740. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment This document is the property of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Remediation Venture Office and was prepared by Tetra Tech EC, Inc. It remained controversial among residents until it was closed in 1992. Located just north of Denver, in Commerce City and close to the Stapleton Airport, the U.S. Army purchased 20,000 acres. In 1986 it was discovered that the absence of human activity had made the area an involuntary park when a winter communal roost of bald eagles, then an endangered species, was discovered on site. OVERVIEW - Just 10 miles northeast of Denver, Colorado lies one of the largest urban wildlife refuges in the country, an area that only 30 years ago was listed on the Superfund National Priorities List due to being contaminated by over 600 chemicals. Interim Response Actions were implemented in order to protect the environment and the surrounding community. Check out the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Visitors Center Not all visitor centers are created equal. When the Wildlife Service realized that over 330 wildlife species of deer, burrowing owls, white pelicans, and bison inhabit the Arsenal, it decided to become involved in its pending clean-up projects. The “red mold disease” of wheat and barley in Japan is prevalent in the region that faces the Pacific Ocean. Currently, no chemical weapons and other related agents are being stored or produced in the arsenal. The injected fluids had very little potential for reaching the surface or usable groundwater supply since the injection point had 11,900 feet (3630 m) of rock above it and was sealed at the opening. There are multiple paved, boardwalk, or gravel trail options with a variety of lengths and difficulty levels available. The government expects to complete the entire project by 2010. The two remaining sites on the property that are retained by the Army are the South Plants location due to historical use and the North Plant location which is now a landfill containing the remains of various buildings used in the North and South Plant locations.  Evidence that Japanese continued to assist the United States Chemical and Biological warfare program efforts continued after the Korean war into Vietnam includes a visit to Rocky Mountain Arsenal in September 1962 by Japanese delegation I-63. Figure 1 illustrates a general map of the RMA. Congruent with the outline of the June 1996 USFWS Comprehensive Management Plan, RMA will be available for public use through both community outreach and educational programs (as provided by the Visitor Access Plan and the USFWS). Figure 2 is a Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge: Lots of History - See 337 traveller reviews, 367 candid photos, and great deals for Commerce City, CO, at Tripadvisor. History Of Rocky Mountain Arsenal Commerce City, Colorado Paperback – January 1, 1980 by ROCKY MOUNTAIN ARSENAL DENVER CO (Author) See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. The land has a unique story - it has survived the test of time and transitioned from farmland, to war-time manufacturing site, to wildlife sanctuary. History of Rocky Mountain Arsenal. The Arsenal's location was selected due to its relative distance from the coasts (and presumably not likely to be attacked); a sufficient labor force to work at the site; weather that was conducive to outdoor work; and the appropriate soil needed for the project. Tokyo: Fuyo Shobo Shuppan, 2001: Quarterly Report Rocky Mountain Arsenal Archive July 1-September 30, 1962: TX Anticrop Agent & Project 112 retrieved July 19, 2012: Medical Aspects of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Chapter 34 TRICHOTHECENE MYCOTOXINS p.659: Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, United States Army arsenals during World War II, Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, http://www.pmrma.army.mil/site/sitefrm.html, "A Brief History of Rocky Mountain Arsenal", http://www.rma.army.mil/cleanup/facts/A%20Brief%20History%20of%20Rocky%20Mountain%20Arsenal.pdf, http://www1.american.edu/ted/ice/arsenal.htm, http://www.rma.army.mil/cleanup/facts/deep-wel.html, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/regional/states/colorado/history.php, https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol46no4/article11.html, http://rockymountainarsenalarchive.files.wordpress.com/2011/07/ja_112.pdf, https://rockymountainarsenalarchive.wordpress.com/2011/07/09/tx-anticrop-agent-project-112/, http://www.bordeninstitute.army.mil/published_volumes/chemBio/Ch34.pdf, The Rocky Mountain Arsenal: States' Rights and the Cleanup of Hazardous Waste, An Assessment of One of the Largest & Most Studied Superfund Sites in the Country: The Rocky Mountain Arsenal, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Rocky_Mountain_Arsenal?oldid=5179425. 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